Mid-term Objectives: An Urban Experience, Toronto, Ontario

Jim Hamilton
Published October 18, 2006

Case Summary

In 1990, the City of Toronto committed to reducing carbon dioxide emissions by 20% by 2005, relative to 1988 levels. To meet these mid-term objectives, the city implemented several mechanisms including:

  1. the City of Toronto’s Energy Efficiency Office (EEO); and,

  2. the Toronto Atmospheric Fund (TAF).