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A prerequisite for participation
Laurian, Lucie. (March 1, 2003) A prerequisite for participation: Environmental knowledge and what residents know about local toxic sites. Journal of Planning Education and Research, 22, 3, 257-269.
The Environmental-Social Interface of Sustainable Development
Lehtonen, M. (2004) The Environmental-Social Interface of Sustainable Development: Capabilities, Social Capital, Institutions. Ecological Economics, 49 199- 214 The social dimension has commonly been recognised as the weakest ‘pillar’ of sustainable development, notably when it comes to its analytical and theoretical underpinnings. While increasing attention has lately been paid to social sustainability, the interaction between the ‘environmental’ and the ‘social’ still remains a largely uncharted terrain. Nevertheless, one can argue that the key challenges of sustainable development reside at the interfaces—synergies and trade-offs—between its various dimensions. This paper looks for preliminary ideas on frameworks for analysing the environmental–social interface.
The dynamics of Social Capital: Creating Trust-based Relationships and Trustworthy Environments
Lemmel, L. (2001). National Civic Review 90 (1): 97-104. Based on Coleman's concept of trust as an essential part of social capital, Lemmel describes social capital as being capable of emerging under predictable conditions and can do so suddenly rather than slowly. Two communities in Maine are used as case studies to illustrate this point and to help address issues related to social capital such as its emergence, sustainability, the creation of trustworthy environments and the institutionalization of social capital. This article provides a succinct analysis of two case studies, which are good examples of the creation and effects of social capital within smaller communities.
Communities of practice, social capital and organizational knowledge
Lesser, E. and L. Prusak. (2000). "Communities of practice, social capital and organizational knowledge". In E. Lesser, M. Fontaine and J. Slusher (eds.), Knowledge and Communities, pp 123-131, Boston: Butterworth Heinemann Communities of practice are collections of individuals who associate to more effectively face similar issues. In the workplace these are often informal clusters of workers who share organizational knowledge that allows them to get their work done. Lesser and Prusak distinguish their discussion by placing communities of practice within the context of a larger economic and sociological principle: social capital.
Social Capital and the Built Environment
Leyden, Kevin M. (September 2003) Social Capital and the Built Environment: The Importance of Walkable Neighborhoods American Journal of Public Health, 93, 9,1546-1552.
The onward sweep of social capital
Mayer, Margit. (March 2003) The onward sweep of social capital: Causes and consequences for understanding cities, communities and urban movements. International Journal of Urban and Regional Research, 27.1, 110-132
Post-normal governance
McCarthy, D. (2003) Post-normal governance: An emerging counter-proposal. Environments, 31(1), 71.
Producing Social Capital
Minkoff, Debra C. (March/April 1997) Producing Social Capital: National social movements and civil society The American Behavioral Scientist, 40, 5, 606-619.
Placing Social Capital
Mohan, G. & Mohan, J. (2002) Placing Social Capital. Progress in Human Geography 26(2) 191-210 This paper reviews the contribution that the concept of social capital might make to geography, and the contribution geography might make to the analysis of social capital. We begin by summarizing the conceptual origins and dimensions of social capital, in the process of which we distinguish it from several other social properties (human and cultural capital; social networks). We then summarize key criticisms of the concept, especially those levelled at the work of Robert Putnam. The core of the paper is a discussion of the issue of whether there might be a geography of social capital.
Development of a metric to test group differences in ecological knowledge as one component of environmental literacy
Morrone, M., K. Manci, and K. Carr. (2001). Development of a metric to test group differences in ecological knowledge as one component of environmental literacy Journal of Environmental Education, 32(4), 33-42.
Using Qualitative Methods to Elicit Young People's Perspectives on their Environments: Some Ideas for Community Health Initiatives
Morrow, V. (2001). Health Education Research 16 (3): 255-268. Morrow describes the qualitative methods used in a research project examining the relationship between social capital and young people's perspectives on their surrounding environments. The project is based on Putnam's concept of social capital as an important factor for well-being. Research was conducted with 102 children between the ages of twelve and fifteen in two schools North of London, England. This paper describes the research setting, samples, processes and methods and ethical considerations. Three different themes evident in the research were friendship, use of neighborhood space and public parks and urban spaces. This paper is useful in exploring specific aspects of society and community important to children but does not go into any analysis of how social capital may be important for sustainable development. Indirectly, this article is of use in demonstrating how a sense of community can influence children and their actions.
Bonds and bridges
Narayan, D. (1999). Bonds and bridges: Social capital and poverty. Washington, DC: World Bank.
Social Capital and Democracy
Newton, Kenneth. (1997). American Behavioral Scientist 40(5): 575-586. This paper offers alternative definitions of social capital by defining it as a subjective phenomenon relying on cooperation, trust and reciprocity. He examines norms, values, networks and consequences as components of social capital. Networks of trust within three models of democracy and social capital are discussed.
The well-being of nations
OECD (2001). "The well-being of nations: The role of human and social capital. "Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development.
The social diversity challenges facing New Zealand
Onyx, J. (2003). "The social diversity challenges facing New Zealand"Public Service Senior Management Conference. Wellington, New Zealand. Article information at: http://www.mapl.com.au/A2.htm The study Measuring Social Capital in five Communities in NSW attempts to answer two questions: 1) Is there such a thing as "social capital", is, does the concept have an empirically meaningful reality? And if so, 2) Can we develop a valid practical measure of social capital? The study suggests the answer to both questions is "yes". It measured social capital in five communities in NSW: Deniliquin, Greenacre, Narellan, Ultimo & Pyrmont and West Wyalong. These include rural, outer metropolitan and inner city communities. Over 200 people in each of the five communities (1211 people in all) were surveyed.
Measuring social capital in five communities
Onyx, J. and Bullen, P. (2000). "Measuring social capital in five communities". Journal of Applied Behavioural Science 36(1): 23-42 Article information at: http://www.mapl.com.au/A2.htm The study Measuring Social Capital in five Communities in NSW attempts to answer two questions: 1) Is there such a thing as "social capital", is, does the concept have an empirically meaningful reality? And if so, 2) Can we develop a valid practical measure of social capital? The study suggests the answer to both questions is "yes". It measured social capital in five communities in NSW: Deniliquin, Greenacre, Narellan, Ultimo & Pyrmont and West Wyalong. These include rural, outer metropolitan and inner city communities. Over 200 people in each of the five communities (1211 people in all) were surveyed.
Crossing the Great Divide: Coproduction, Synergy and Development
Ostrom, Elinor. (1996). World Deeon is the main focus of this article and is discussed as a process by which goods and services are produced. Two case studies from Brazil and Nigeria are presented and examine experiences of coproduction. Among other things, coproduction can create social capital through collective efforts among citizens. Conditions for effective coproduction are detailed.
Volunteer stream monitoring and local participation in natural resource issues
Overdevest, C., C.H. Orr and K. Stepenuck. (2004). Volunteer stream monitoring and local participation in natural resource issues. Human Ecology review 11(2): 177-185
New Urbanism and the Generation of Social Capital: Evidence from Orenco Station
Podobnik, Bruce. (Fall 2002) New Urbanism and the Generation of Social Capital: Evidence from Orenco Station. National Civic Review. 91 (3): 245-255
Social capital: its origins and applications in modern sociology
Portes, A. (1998). “Social capital: its origins and applications in modern sociology”, Annual Review of Sociology, Vol. 24, No. 1, 1998, pp. 1-24
This paper reviews the origins and definitions of social capital in the writings of Bourdieu, Loury, and Coleman, among other authors. It distinguishes four sources of social capital and examines their dynamics. Applications of the concept in the sociological literature emphasize its role in social control, in family support, and in benefits mediated by extrafamilial networks. I provide examples of each of these positive functions.
Social capital and the collective management of resources.
Pretty, J. and D. Smith. (2004). Social capital in biodiversity conservation and management. Conservation Biology 18(3): 631-638
Social capital in biodiversity conservation and management
Pretty, Jules. (December 12 2003). Social capital in biodiversity conservation and management. Science 302 (3): 1912-1914
Social capital and the environment
Pretty, J. and Ward, H. (2001). Social capital and the environment. World Development (Feb), Volume 29 (No 2), 209-227, 2001. For as long as people have managed natural resources, they have engaged in collective action. But development assistance has paid too little attention to how social and human capital affects environmental outcomes. Social capital comprises relations of trust, reciprocity, common rules, norms and sanctions, and connectedness in institutions.
Neighborhood Governance: Leadership, Trust and Social Capital
Purdue, D. (2001). Urban Studies 38(12): 2211-2224. The building of trust relationships to create social capital within a community can help in neighborhood regeneration. Social networks and community partnerships can promote social capital. However, these are dependant on the existence of community leaders who represent key linkages between governments and localities. In this paper, two types of social capital, communal and collaborative are defined and examined in relation to leadership and social networking. This paper is useful in identifying requirements for the building of social capital and the importance of leadership within the community.
Bowling Alone: America's Declining Social Capital
Putnam, R. (1995). Journal of Democracy 6(1): 65-78. In this article, Putnam explores the possible explanations for the decrease in social capital in America over the last few decades. Detailed examples of decreased civic engagement and social connectedness, such as less voting and fewer union and club memberships are given. Countertrends such as increased non-profit organizations and support groups are discussed. Putnam suggests, among others that increased mobility and the presence of multi-national corporations in communities may be reasons for the decline in social capital. This is useful in terms of identifying what is in important for the building of social capital. In his concluding remarks, Putnam states the need for a clearer definition and understanding of social capital. This article is valuable in identifying exactly how social capital has been declining and offers some suggestion as to why this has happened.
Foreward
Putnam, R. (1998). Foreward. Housing Policy Debate 9 (1): v-viii
Accounting for the 'dark side' of social capital: Reading Robert Putnam on democracy.
Putzel, James. (1997). Accounting for the 'dark side' of social capital: Reading Robert Putnam on democracy. Journal of International Development 9 (7): 939-949
Human Bonds and Social Capital
Quigley, K. (1996). ORBIS 40(2): 333-342.
Both Putnam's and Fukuyama's works are examined here to analyze trust as a form of social capital within economic development. Different definitions of social capital are discussed. The importance of networks, trust and cooperation in the context of economic development is also examined and voluntary association within corporations in used as an example of these components. Social capital promotion, including local leadership and involvement, is seen as the requirement for successful development.
Revisiting carrying capacity: area- based indicators of sustainability.
Ress, W.E. (1996) Revisiting carrying capacity: area- based indicators of sustainability. Population and Environment: A Journal of Interdisciplinary Studies. 17 (3): 195-201
Perverse Social Capital: Some Evidence from Columbia
Rubio, M. (1997). Journal of Economic Issues. 31(3): 805-816. Social capital is discussed here as either productive or detrimental depending on a society's structure. This paper is divided into three parts. First, it provides a critique of the theories that explain juvenile delinquency as a result of deficiencies in social capital. The second part gives an example of a situation where two types of social capital exist. The third part analyzes the relationship between education and income levels in Columbia.
Live Long and Prosper: Collective Action, Social Capital and Social Vision
Rudd, M. (2000). Ecological Economics 34(1):131-144. The current environmental changes can only be fully understood by examining social issues, which lie at the root of the problem. The development of social capital is an important factor for the achievement of sustainability. This paper examines the role of social capital theory as a link between rational choice and collective decision-making. A framework for analysis of social capital and economics is also presented. The linkages between social capital theory, social interactions and outcomes that influence environmental and economic changes are also explored. Rudd concludes by emphasizing the importance of social capital for long-term sustainability.
Strong Ties, Weak Ties, and Islands: Structural and Cultural Predictors of Organizational Innovation
Ruef, M. (2002). "Strong Ties, Weak Ties, and Islands: Structural and Cultural Predictors of Organizational Innovation". Industrial and Corporate Change, 11(3) How does the tendency of entrepreneurs to engage in innovation relate to their structural and cultural embeddedness? Using micro-data on entrepreneurial teams and the organizational innovations they attempt to develop, this article presents a predictive model of creative action to address this question. Capacity for creative action is seen to be a function of the ability of entrepreneurs to (i) obtain non-redundant information from their social networks; (ii) avoid pressures for conformity; and (iii) sustain trust in developing novel—and potentially profitable—innovations. Probit analyses of over 700 organizational startups suggest that these mechanisms exercise effects on innovation via the network ties and enculturation of entrepreneurs.
Re-evaluating the Contribution of Social Capital in Achieving Sustainable Development
Rydin, Y.andHolman, N. (2004) “Re-evaluating the Contribution of Social Capital in Achieving Sustainable Development” Carfax Publishing Company, Issue: Volume 9, Number 2, pp 117 - 133, April 2004 The concept of social capital has received significant interest during the last decade. However some have argued that its widespread usage has rendered it too confused to be considered analytically useful. This paper sets out to provide a clear typology of social capital, based on the premise that the concept still has considerable value if employed carefully and rigorously. In particular, its utility is considered within the conflict-ridden context of sustainable development policy.
Public Participation and local environmental planning: the collective action problem and the potential of social capital.
Rydin, Yvonne.andPennington, Mark. (2000) Public Participation and local environmental planning: the collective action problem and the potential of social capital. Local Environment, 5 (2): 153-169
Social Capital and New Urbanism: Leading a Civic Horse to Water?
Sander, Thomas H. (2002) Social Capital and New Urbanism: Leading a Civic Horse to Water?. National Civic Review, 91 (3): 213-234
Thinking About Social Capital
Schuller, T. (2000) Working Papers of the Global Colloquium on Supporting Lifelong Learning, Milton Keynes, Open University , UK  
Schuller explores the importance of social capital in relation to policy. By counteracting individualism and narrow policies and by bringing the long-term perspective into policymaking, social capital has the ability to reintroduce a moral dimension. A framework displaying characteristics of social and human capital explores the relationship between the two. This article discusses both the importance of social capital and its connection with human capital.
The complimentary roles of human and social capital
Schuller, T. (2001). "The complimentary roles of human and social capital" Canadian Journal of Policy Research, Vol. 2, No. 1, pp. 18-24
Weak and strong conceptions of environmental literacy: implications from environmental education
Stables, A. and K. Bishop. (2001) Weak and strong conceptions of environmental literacy: implications from environmental education. Environmental Education Research, 7 (1).
Measuring social capital. Towards a theoretically informed measurement framework for researching social capital in family and community life.
Stone, Wendy. (February 2001) Measuring social capital. Towards a theoretically informed measurement framework for researching social capital in family and community life. Research Paper No. 24, Australian Institute of Family Studies.
Learning to network and networking to learn: Facilitating the process of adaptive management in a local resource to the UK's National Air Quality Strategy.
Stubbs, Mark and Mark Lemon. (2001) Learning to network and networking to learn: Facilitating the process of adaptive management in a local resource to the UK's National Air Quality Strategy. Environmental Management. 27 (8): 321-334
Social capital and popular mobilisation: Studying environmental protests in an Indian state.
Swain, Ashok. (June 2000). Social capital and popular mobilisation: Studying environmental protests in an Indian state. Asian Journal of Political Science, 8 (1): 33-46.
Weak Ties as a Liability: The Case of East Germany
Volker, B. and Flap, H. (2001) “Weak Ties as a Liability: The Case of East Germany” Rationality and Society, 2001 13/4  
Every institutional system induces specific problems that have no standardized solutions for the people living in it. In this paper it is argued that people invest in relationships with certain others partly in order to solve these problems. Hence, the personal networks that result provide solutions to system-induced problems and they reflect the institutional environment. Personal networks of people living in the former German Democratic Republic (GDR) during communism are examined, and social capital theory is used to explain why communism did not produce social integration. In a communist society like that of the former GDR, weak ties are a liability, not an asset. Therefore, GDR citizens trusted only people whom they knew well.
Social Dimensions of Neighborhoods and the Effectiveness of Information Programs
Weenig, M.W.H., Schmidt, T. and Midden, C.J.H. (1990). Environment and Behavior 22(1): 27-54. This article examines how the cohesiveness of neighborhoods can affect the flow of information and its ability to change neighborhood opinions by examining several low-income neighborhoods in the Netherlands. The author reviews past studies pertaining to neighborhood cohesion and social networks and also reviews literature on the importance of social networks for information diffusions in communities. Importance of network ties is discussed and four types of communities are identified in terms of quality and quantity of network ties.
Food justice movements: Policy, planning, and networks.
Wekerle, G.R. (June 2004). Food justice movements: Policy, planning, and networks. Journal of Planning Education and Research 23 (4): 378-386
The new regionalism: Key characteristics of an emerging movement.
Wheeler, Steven, M. (Summer 2002). The new regionalism: Key characteristics of an emerging movement. American Planning Association. 68 (3): 267-279
Connection matters: exploring the implications of social capital and social networks for social policy.
White, Leroy. (2002). Connection matters: exploring the implications of social capital and social networks for social policy. System Research and Behavioral Science. 19: 255-269
Collective mobilization and identity from the underground: the deployment of "oppositional capital" in the harm reduction movement.
Wieloch, N. (Winter 2002). Collective mobilization and identity from the underground: the deployment of "oppositional capital" in the harm reduction movement. Sociological Quarterly. 43 (1)
Building Social Capital: A Learning Agenda for the Twenty First Century
Wilson, P. (1997). "Building Social Capital: A Learning Agenda for the Twenty First Century." Urban Studies, 34 5/6 pp 745-760, 1997. Wilson's article deals with the concept of social capital. The main goal that should be pursued in developing social capital is that of improving the individuals within the community. Understanding and learning among the different groups in a community and an emphasis on strengthening social relationships will help in this process.
The place of social capital in understanding social and economic outcomes
Woolcock, M. (2001). "The place of social capital in understanding social and economic outcomes" Canadian Journal of Policy Research, Vol. 2, No. 1, pp. 11-17  
This paper provides a brief introduction to the recent theoretical and empirical literature on social capital as it pertains to economic development issues, with a particular focus on its significance for OECD countries. In so doing it seeks to address three specific questions: (1) How are social capital, human capital, and social capability related to one another?; (2) How can social capital be measured?; and (3) How might existing economic growth models give more adequate attention to social capital?
Community organizing: Building social capital as a development strategy
Yabes, R. (2001). "Community organizing: Building social capital as a development strategy." American Planning Association. Journal of the American Planning Association, 67(3), 344-346.
What We Know About Endangering Civic Identity
Youniss, J. and Yates, M., (1997). American Behavioral Scientist 40(5): 620-631. This paper explores factors that contribute to long-term civic engagement. A study of 4-H club members years after their membership indicates that adults involved in 4-H as children were more likely to be involved in politics and civic engagement. As well, participation in high school activities helps youth develop organizational practices and values of civic engagement that will stay with them later on in life. This is also important for the development of individual self-identity.